In the first, energy may be as” capacity to do work “. Throw the process photosynthesis, green plants intercept protein of the sunlight reaching their leaves and capture it within the chemical bonds of glucose. Proteins, fats, and other carbohydrates are synthesized from this basic carbohydrate to meet the needs of the plants. Animals and humans obtain these nutrients and the energy they contain by consuming plants and the flesh of other animals.
Energy must be supplied regularly to meet to needs of the boy is survival. Although all energy eventually takes the form of heat, which dissipates it is used for all of the tasks required for life. These processes involve chemical reactions that maintain body tissue, electrical conduction of the nerves, mechanical work of the muscles, and heat production to maintain body temperature.
Energy requirements are defined as the dietary energy intake that is required for growth or maintenance in the person of defined age, height, gender, weight and level of physical activity. In children and pregnant women or lactating women, energy requirements include the needs associated with the deposition of tissues or the secretion of milk at rates consistent with good health. In injured or ill people, the stressors have an effect by increasing or decreasing energy expenditure.Read:Nutrition in Exercise and sports performance
Bodyweight is one indicator of energy adequacy or inadequacy. The body has the unique ability to shift the fuel mixture of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to accommodate energy needs. However, consuming too much or too little energy over time results in body weight changes.
Thermic Effect Of Food
The thermic effect of food (TEF)is the increase in energy expenditure associated with consumption, digestion, and absorption of food. The thermic effect of food accounts for approximately 10% of the thermic effect of food. The thermic effect of food may also be called diet-induced thermogenesis, specific dynamic action, or the specific effect of food. So that we can say the mic affected of food can be separated into obligatory and facultative or adaptive subcomponents.
The thermic effect of food varies with the composition of the diet with energy expenditure increasing directly after food intake, particularly after consumption of a meal higher in fat. Fat is metabolized efficiently, with only 4%waste, compared with 25% waste when carbohydrate is converted to fat for stronger. The macronutrient oxidation rate is not different in lean and obese individuals.
Measurement of Energy Expenditure
- The standard unit for measuring energy is the calorie, which is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 ml of water 15 C by 1C. Because the amount of energy involved in the metabolism of food is fairly large (kcal), 100 calories are used to measure it.
- The joule (j)measure energy in terms of mechanical work and is the amount of energy required to accelerate with a force of 1 Newton (N)for a distance of 1m, this measurement is widely used in countries other than the United States (US). One call is equivalent to about 4.184 kilojoules (KJ).